Effect of fly ash-lime treatment on the acute toxicity of greywater towards Daphnia magna


  • Sinoyolo Nondlazi
  • Nosiphiwe Ngqwala
  • Bongumusa M. Zuma
  • Paul K. Mensah
  • Roman Tandlich




Daphnia magna, Mixed effluent, Acute toxicity, Small-scale irrigation


Acute toxicity of raw and treated greywater towards Daphnia magna was assessed in this study. Treatment was performed with exposure of greywater to the fly-lime mixture After 48 h of exposure, 100 % mortality of D. magna was recorded when testing the following volumetric fractions of the raw greywater streams in the tested liquid medium (%; v/v): 10 % for kitchen greywater, 5 – 10 % for bathroom greywater and 1.25 – 10 % for laundry greywater. After greywater treatment with the fly-ash-lime mixture with pH adjustment to 7.0, 80 % of neonates of D. magna survived after exposure to treated laundry greywater in all dilutions at 48 h. At the same time, 100 % of neonates survived exposure to treated bathroom and kitchen greywater at all volumetric fractions. Therefore greywater had acute toxicity to D. magna, i.e. greywater treatment was required before its discharge or reuse. Values of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the chemical components of the raw greywater and treated greywater and the survival of D. magna indicated a lack of statistically significant correlation at 5 % level of significance (p-value > 0.05 in all cases), i.e. the survival of D. magna was independent of the concentration of chemical constituents in greywater samples tested. Further studies will have to be conducted on the chronic toxicity of the greywater effluent after treatment with the fly-lime mixture. Experiments from this study will have to be re-run for the fully scaled-up version of the fly-lime mixture-based greywater treatment systems.




How to Cite

Nondlazi, S., Ngqwala, N., Zuma, B. M. ., Mensah, P. K., & Tandlich, R. . (2019). Effect of fly ash-lime treatment on the acute toxicity of greywater towards Daphnia magna. Nova Biotechnologica Et Chimica, 18(1), 59–65. https://doi.org/10.2478/nbec-2019-0008



Research Articles
Received 2020-02-28
Published 2019-08-17