Effect of various factors on anthocyanins extraction from butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.)
Keywords:Anthocyanins, Butterfly pea, Extraction, Phenolic, pH
An antioxidant compound is the main compound that is used to prevent cell damage from free radicals. These unstable molecules can be produced in the environmental condition such as pollution or lifestyle. One of the antioxidant molecules are anthocyanins, which can be found in the butterfly pea flower. This compound could be obtained from the extraction process. However, extraction conditions such as sample/solvent ratio, extraction time, and pH are the main factors in maximizing the yield. In this research, various factors on anthocyanins and phenolic content in butterfly pea extract were studied to get the optimum extraction condition. Extraction of the butterfly pea flower was done using the agitation method with heating and water solvent at 60 °C and various parameters. The sample was a dried butterfly pea flower. Various factors in extraction were: sample/solvent ratio, 1 : 20 and 1 : 50 (g.mL-1), extraction time of 90 and 150 min, and pH 1.0 and 7.0. Yield is calculated by comparing the extract weight before and after drying. Total anthocyanins content and total phenolic content are determined spectrophotometrically. Based on the results, the extraction of anthocyanins was affected by the stability of structures at different pH values. The highest total anthocyanins content was 1,206.77 mg.L-1 at sample/solvent ratio 1 : 20, 90 min and pH 1.0 conditions. Then, the maximum total phenolic content was 94.04 GAE mg.mg-1 sample at the sample/solvent ratio 1 : 50, 90 min and pH 7.0.
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