Stability of Salvia fruticosa Mill. polyphenols and antioxidant activity in a citrate-based natural deep eutectic solvent


  • Spyros Grigorakis
  • Abedalghani Halahlah
  • Dmitris Makris



Antioxidant activity, Deep eutectic solvents, Polyphenols, Salvia fruticosa, Stability


In a previous study, it was demonstrated that a novel deep eutectic solvent (DES), composed of lactic acid and sodium citrate dibasic at a molar ratio of 15:1 (LA-SCDB15), was a high-performing system with regard to polyphenol extraction from the medicinal plant Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek or Cretan sage). However, an issue of particular importance that should be addressed is the stability of the extract in this novel liquid since the information available to-date on extract stability in DES is rather limited and inconclusive. In this frame, this study was undertaken to generate extracts of S. fruticosa with LA-SCDB15 (a 77/23 w/w mixture of DES with water) and examine their stability in this solvent. S. fruticosa extracts exhibited remarkable stability under both accelerated and long-term conditions, and the antiradical activity and the ferric-reducing power of the extracts were shown to suffer virtually trivial modifications. Further analytical examination with liquid chromatography-diode array-tandem mass spectrometry assured that the major polyphenolic phytochemicals occurring in Salvia fruticosa extracts underwent non-significant changes and remained practically intact. It was concluded that the neoteric DES LA-SCDB15 may provide outstanding stability in polyphenol-containing extracts and its testing on other plant extracts is proposed as a further step towards revealing its stabilizing potential.